In the realm of web development, there are always many opportunities. The development industry has developed and flourished in a variety of ways and fields since its inception in the early 1990s. Web development is still one of the most in-demand skills in the twenty-first century. Learning web development languages is necessary to start a career in this field. However, given the wide range of programming languages available today, particularly if you are a beginner, you could find it difficult to decide which ones to study.
In 2023, the top 15 programming languages for web development will be covered in this article. By the end of the blog, you will have a better grasp of the various programming languages because we will have covered their use cases, features, advantages, and disadvantages.
What is a Programming Language?
Any language can be used to communicate in general. Computers communicate with one another using a language called programming. It consists of a list of commands (or code) that are created to carry out particular tasks. The computer is being instructed by programmers using a language that computers can comprehend and follow. To execute the codes correctly, each programming language has its own syntax, structure, and rules that must be adhered to.
Types of programming languages based on different aspects of web development
We’ll start by talking about web development’s numerous facets now that you’ve made the decision to pursue it. Front-end development, back-end development, and full-stack development are the three different career paths you might take in web development.
1. Front-end Development
You might obtain designs from web designers as a front-end developer or you might have to make your own.
2. Back-end Development
The logistics of the website are created during back-end development; in other words, everything that takes place in the background.
The dining room is your front end and the kitchen is your back end, for instance, if you are running a restaurant. Nobody should be able to see what is happening in the kitchen.
The main programming languages used to build the back end of your website are Node.js, Python, PHP, etc. (Each is described in more detail below.)
3. Full-stack Development
Both the front end and the back end of the website must be developed by full-stack developers. Programming, database administration, API management, and security management are all skills that a full stack developer must possess.
Why do Some Programming Languages Work Better than Others?
There are differences between how each programming language operates, as you may have noticed. Many people move more quickly than others. This has to do with how abstract each language is, which is the reason why. In essence, it specifies what the language will handle automatically and what will require direct intervention. These are a few of the elements:
- Languages that enforce automatic memory management may run slower than those that do not.
- Compiling a language requires the translation of source code into machine code, which adds time to the process.
- The speed is influenced by the compiler’s effectiveness.
- Software that executes a program line by line in a language that uses an interpreter may be slow. It also needs time to start up.
15 Best Programming languages for Web Development in 2023
Following our discussion of programming language fundamentals, let’s look at the top 15 languages for developing websites in 2023.
- Objective C
- Ruby Rails
Every developer needs to be conversant with HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, which is the basis of web development. In 2020, it will be the second-most utilized language, according to a Stack Overflow survey. Web developers value its popularity. The preferred language for creating web pages, while not being a full-fledged programming language.
- HTML provides the structure for the web pages and is responsible for the proper formatting of text and images.
- It enables the usage of templates, making it simple to create websites.
- It is lightweight and fast.
- Quite easy to learn and implement.
- Supported by every browser.
- Free and accessible.
- Static language, so not possible to create dynamic pages.
- Need to write a lot of code for developing a simple web page.
Like HTML, CSS is another basic language that every developer must know.Cascading Style Sheets, or CSS, are frequently used with HTML to control a webpage’s style. The mother of all programming languages is considered to be the union of HTML and CSS. All elements on a web page have their sizes, colors, and locations decided by CSS.
- It has a cascading style, meaning throughout a webpage, an applied style will cascade down from parent to child.
- It supports responsive web design.
- CSS upholds consistency due to its cascading nature.
- Simple and beginner-friendly.
- Improves page loading speed.
- Simplifies customization of web pages.
- Possibility of cross-browser issues.
- Confusion due to multiple levels like CSS, CSS2, and CSS3.
- It is a lightweight programming language.
- The syntax is simple and easy to learn.
- Besides web development, it can be used for developing mobile apps, games, and web servers.
- Easy to integrate with other languages.
- It is simple and versatile.
- No multiple inheritance support.
- Less secure compared to other languages.
One of the most widely used languages for web development is Python, an open-source language that is simple to learn and use. Python is a great option for both inexperienced and seasoned programmers. It is utilized for automation, data science, web app development, and backend development. Its extensive library of standard libraries makes Python programming simpler for developers.
- It has dynamic typing capabilities which makes it easy for developers to create complex websites that need constant content changes.
- It is an efficient backend web development language and integrates with other programming languages like C, C#, and Java.
- It can be associated with popular web development frameworks like Django and Flask to create web-based applications.
- OOP characteristics simplify programming.
- Extensively scalable.
- Emphasizes code readability.
- Interpreted programming language, hence slow.
- Not suitable for developing mobile applications.
Sun Microsystems created Java in 1990 to provide the C++ language new features. The Write Once, Run Anywhere philosophy served as its foundation. It is one of the most popular backend web development languages today and is owned by Oracle. Due to its low barrier to entry, great productivity, and adherence to OOP principles, it is a wonderful language to learn. It also contains open-source feature-rich libraries.
- Java supports multithreading so multiple threads can be executed concurrently implying maximum CPU utilization.
- It supports vertical and horizontal scaling with only slight code changes.
- It can handle massive amounts of data and is highly secure.
- Easy to learn, write, and debug
- It is portable
- It is robust and versatile
- It consumes more memory
- Slow compared to languages like C or C++
- Has several inbuilt debugging tools that make development simple
- It is a type-safe language, hence type-related errors are reduced
- Supported by Visual Studio Code, Microsoft’s free code editor.
- Cross-platform andcross browser compatibility
- Supports OOP concepts
- Increased code readability
7. Objective C
Objective C or C is a simple and general-purpose language that was developed in 1972. It is a popular language and often one of the first choices of programmers who are beginning to step into the development domain. Objective C is majorly used to code for the iOS operating system.
- Supports dynamic typing and therefore has excellent flexibility
- Used with Cocoa or Cocoa Touch framework
- Supports dynamic memory allocation
- Super easy to learn
- Fast, powerful, and flexible
- Can perform complex calculations
- Error detection is difficult
- Does not support OOP concepts
C++ is a middle-level programming language that was created in 1980 as an extension of Objective C. It is a straightforward language that is both helpful and simple for novices to learn. C++ enables capabilities like object-oriented programming, exception management, and type checking in addition to what Objective C does.
- Supports OOP concepts like abstraction, inheritance, and encapsulation.
- Has a robust standard library
- Quick and efficient compiling mechanism
- Simple and portable
- Highly scalable
- Large community support
- No automatic garbage collection
- Complexities associated with pointers
SQL, or Structured Query Language, is a standard database language that is used in combination with another programming language. As a database query language, it is used to manipulate databases. It comes third in the list of most used programming languages by Stack Overflow, with more than 50% of developers using SQL for programming.
- It is used to create, read, update and delete records in databases.
- It is widely used in business intelligence tools.
- SQL has a simple syntax.
- It is easily accessible.
- It is highly functional.
- It is portable.
- It works well only with small databases.
- Scaling is expensive and time-consuming.
An open-source programming language used for back-end development is called PHP, or Hypertext Preprocessor. It is an interpreted language that is mostly used for creating dynamic, data-intensive webpages. One of the most widely used web page languages, PHP is used by frameworks like Drupal and WordPress.
- It is supported by many third-party extensions like .NET, MySQL, and Apache.
- It can output images, PDF, text, animations, and HTML.
- It is compatible with cloud services.
- Easy to learn and use.
- Can be used on all major operating systems.
- Has great community support.
- Error handling features are not excellent.
- Development using PHP only can be slow.
Microsoft created the object-oriented programming language C# (C Sharp). It was initially designed so that Windows programs could be built using the.NET framework. Today, it is widely utilized in the creation of mobile apps, games, and backend systems. It is one of the top website coding languages in 2023 since it can be utilized on platforms including Android, Linux, and iOS in addition to Windows.
- It has a strong memory backup facility and avoids memory leaks
- It is equipped with a rich set of libraries enabling faster development
- It is the only language used by Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF)
- Ideal for all types of web development
- Complete integration with .NET library
- Compilation and execution is fast
- Difficult to handle multi-thread applications
- Less flexible
One of the most popular front-end languages with MVC architecture and dynamic modeling is Angular. It is a crucial programming language that aids in the creation of challenging applications. Because Angular uses HTML for UI development, it is simple to comprehend. You can most effectively create projects with broad functionality and appealing design with Angular.
- It utilizes templates to make development quick and easy.
- It uses extensions like Snippet and Angular Command Line Interface to simplify the development.
- Using Angular Filters, data is filtered before reaching the view.
- Minimum coding is required.
- Supports two-way data binding.
- Better functionality and improved performance.
- Steep learning curve.
13. Ruby Rails
Ruby is a well-liked backend programming language for web development that supports procedural, functional, and object-oriented programming. It is one of the most frequently advised languages for beginners. The language is widely used for web development when coupled with the Ruby on Rails framework.
- It supports various Graphical User Interface (GUI) tools
- Favors all major platforms like Windows, Mac, and Linux
- Has prominent features like automatic garbage collection, centralized package management, custom dispatch behavior, etc.
- Has many helpful tools and libraries
- Large and active community support
- Has strong adherence to web standards
- Codes written in Ruby are difficult to debug
- It is comparatively slow
In 2007, Google created the open-source programming language known as Golang or Go. The syntax is comparable to that of C, and it enables the creation of productive and safe online applications. Go is excellent for creating machine learning software, building data pipelines, and network programming.
- It is equipped with inbuilt testing tools
- Supports multithreading and can execute several processes concurrently
- It has excellent memory safety features like garbage collection for automatic memory management
- Quite easy to learn
- Has a powerful standard library
- Offers high performance
- Inefficient error handling capabilities
- Lack of flexibility
Scala is grouped in the Java family and is one of the latest additions to it. It has all the features of Java plus some additions which help to overcome some of the cons of Java. Scala is a great choice for developing data analytics solutions.
- Supports concurrent programming and execution of procedures in parallel
- Has great IDE support
- Highly functional programming with better code quality
- Easy to learn
- Concise code
- Greatly scalable
- The built-in compiler is slow
- Limited community support
These fifteen web development languages will be of great use to you whether you are just starting off or hoping to advance it. One important property of programming languages is that they remain relevant even as web development trends come and go. Therefore, whichever language you decide to learn in 2023 will benefit your programming career and be relevant for many years to come. So pick a language that interests you and have fun learning it!